Vascular and Endovascular Sciences

Vice President:
Vascular Access Society of India

Editorial Board:
Annals of Vascular Surgery

Asian Society of Vascular Surgery

Medanta Hospital, Gurugram, Haryana 122001


Dr. Tarun Grover
Dr. Tarun Grover
Peripheral Vascular & Endovascular Sciences

Varicose Veins

What are varicose and spider veins?

Varicose veins are enlarged "rope-like veins — blood vessels — that are swollen and raised above the surface of the skin. They can be flesh-colored, dark purple or blue, and often look like a cluster of grapes. They are commonly found on the back of the calves or the inside of the legs. However, they can form anywhere on the legs, from groin to ankle.

Spider veins are similar to varicose veins, but they are smaller and closer to the surface of the skin They are often red or blue, and look like tree branches or spider webs. They can occur anywhere on the legs, and can cover either a very small or very large area of skin. They don't bulge like varicose veins, but are often more noticeable.

What causes varicose veins?

Varicose veins result from abnormal inner walls or abnormal valves in these blood vessels. Blood is carried through arteries from the heart to the rest of the body, and returned to the heart through the body, veins, called the venous system. Veins have valves that act as one-way flaps. preventing blood from backing up and pooling. When these one-way valves don't work property, blood then may flow backwards, causing the veins to dilate (enlarge) and become varicose. The technical terms for this condition are venous reflex or venous insufficiency.

What are the risk factors for varicose veins?

What are the signs and symptoms of varicose veins?

In many cases, varicose and spider veins cause no symptoms. However, these veins are often unattractive and may become painful. Prolonged sitting or standing tends to make legs with varicose veins feel worse.

Some common symptoms of them include.

When to seek medical advice?

Self-help measures (conservative therapy, can help ease the pain of varicose veins and may prevent them from getting worse. But if the way they look and feel becomes a concern or if self-help measures are not successful, then it, time to see one of our doctors.

How are varicose and spider veins treated?

Several options are available for the treatments of venous reflux (backflow) and varicose veins. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. After your consultation and ultrasound evaluation, our vein specialist will recommend the best plan of treatment for your medical or cosmetic needs.

Following are the available treatment options:


A "sclerosing” solution is injected into the vein that causes the vein wall to swell, stick together, and seal shut. This process stops the flow of blood, and the vein turns into scar tissue. In a few weeks, the veins fade & subsides the disease completely.

Compression Stockings

Compression stockings are elastic garments won around the leg, compressing the limb, exerting pressure against the legs, reducing the diameter of distended veins, and causing an increase in venous blood flow velocity and valve effectiveness. Compression therapy helps decrease venous pressure, prevents venous stasis and impairments of venous walls, and relieves heavy and aching legs. Graduated compression stockings are the tightest at the ankle & get gradual, looser further up the leg. These stockings are to be worn only in the day time.

Varicose vein open surgery

This is an invasive surgery that involves removing the varicose veins. There are many variations of operation, depending on which vein needs treatment. The most common is called ligation & stripping minimally.

Some of the new minimally invasive approaches for varicose veins

Minimally invasive techniques such as laser & radiofrequency treatments are now available. Endogenous Laser treatment (EVLTY)/Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA) involves the passage of a fine laser/ RFA probe inside a vein. This technique heats the vein & causes it to close up.

What are the benefits of the treatment?

EVLT and RFA are minimally invasive procedure with minimal risk of scarring & post operative infection generally performed under local anesthesia.

What is the expected outcome of the surgery?

It is a simple day care procedure which takes less than an hour. You will be discharged the same day itself with a minimum or rather no risk of infection and bleeding. You may resume to your regular activities and be back to normal routine immediately.